References for Daniel


(1) Daniel spake and said - That is, he spake and said in the manner intimated in the previous verse. It was by a record made at the time, and thus he might be said to speak to his own generation and to all future times.

I saw in my vision by night - I beheld in the vision; that is, he saw represented to him the scene which he proceeds to describe. He seemed to see the sea in a tempest, and these monsters come up from it, and the strange succession of events which followed.

And behold, the four winds of the heaven - The winds that blow under the heaven, or that seem to come from the heaven - or the air. Compare Jer_49:36. The number of the winds is here referred to as four as they are now, as blowing mainly from the four quarters of the earth. Nothing is more common now than to designate them in this manner - as the east, the south, the west, the north wind. So the Latins - Eurus, Auster, Zephyrus, Boreas.

Strove - מגיחן megı̂ychân. Burst, or rushed forth; seemed to conflict together. The winds burst, rushed from all quarters, and seemed to meet on the sea, throwing it into wild commotion. The Hebrew word (גיח gı̂yach) means to break or burst forth, as a fountain or stream of waters, Job_40:23; an infant breaking forth from the womb, Job_38:8; a warrior rushing forth to battle, Eze_32:2. Hence, the Chaldean to break forth; to rush forth as the winds. The symbol here would naturally denote some wild commotion among the nations, as if the winds of heaven should rush together in confusion.

Upon the great sea - This expression would properly apply to any great sea or ocean, but it is probable that the one that would occur to Daniel would be the Mediterranean Sea, as that was best known to him and his contemporaries. A heaving ocean - or an ocean tossed with storms - would be a natural emblem to denote a nation, or nations, agitated with internal conflicts, or nations in the midst of revolutions. Among the sacred poets and the prophets, hosts of armies invading a land are compared to overflowing waters, and mighty changes among the nations to the heaving billows of the ocean in a storm. - Albert Barnes' Notes On The Bible



"This is allowed, on all hands, to be the Roman empire. It was dreadful, terrible, and exceeding strong: it devoured, and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue, that is, the remains of the former kingdoms, with its feet. It reduced Macedon into a Roman province about one hundred and sixty-eight years before Christ; the kingdom of Pergamos about one hundred and thirty-three years; Syria about sixty-five; and Egypt about thirty years before Christ. And, besides the remains of the Macedonian empire, it subdued many other provinces and kingdoms; so that it might, by a very usual figure, be said to devour the whole earth, to tread it down, and break it to pieces; and became in effect, what the Roman writers delight to call it, the empire of the whole world." (Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible)



So in 1Ki_22:11, we find horns used in a symbolic action on the part of the false prophet Zedekiah. “He made him horns of iron, and said, Thus saith Jehovah, With these shalt thou push the Syrians, until thou have consumed them.” In Zec_1:18, the four horns that are seen by the prophet are said to be the four great powers which had scattered and wasted the Jews. Compare Wemyss on the Symbolic Language of Scripture, art. “Horns.” There can be no doubt as to the meaning of the symbol here, for it is explained in a subsequent part of the chapter Dan_7:24, “the ten horns are the ten kings that shall arise.” It would seem also, from that explanation, that they were to be ten kings that would “arise” or spring out of that kingdom at some period of its history. “And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise;” that is, not that the kingdom itself would spring out of ten others that would be amalgamated or consolidated into one, but that out of that one kingdom there would spring up ten that would exercise dominion, or in which the power of the one kingdom would be ultimately lodged. Though Daniel appears to have seen these horns as pertaining to the beast when he first saw him, yet the subsequent explanation is, that these horns were emblems of the manner in which the power of that one kingdom would be finally exerted; or that ten kings or dynasties would spring out of it. We are, then, naturally to look for the fulfillment of this in some one great kingdom of huge power that would crush the nations, and from which, while the same general characteristic would remain, there would spring up ten kings, or dynasties, or kingdoms, in which the power would be concentrated. - Albert Barnes' Notes On The Bible



For the power that succeeded Grecia the prophet could find nothing in nature, which would answer as a fit symbol. A power so strong, so fierce, so ravenous and destructive, could not be represented by any known beast that this earth produces. Hence the prophet is obliged to introduce a symbol that finds no counterpart in nature - a monster with ten horns, the body of a behemoth, glaring eyes, a lion’s nostrils, great iron teeth and brazen nails. This beast symbolizes the same as the iron legs of the image, opposite which it is placed, namely, Rome, the successor of Grecia. The ten horns on this beast denote the ten kings that arose out of the Roman empire, the same as the ten toes of the image. Daniel 7:24. These kingdoms are enumerated by Marchiaval, Bishop Lloyd, and Dr.Hales, as follows: KPC 14.1

1. The Huns, A.D.356. 2. The Ostrogoths, A.D.377. 3. The Visigoths, A.D.378. 4. The Franks, A.D.407. 5. The Vandals, A.D.407. 6. The Suevi, A.D.407. 7. The Burgundians, A.D.407. 8. The Heruli and Rugii, or Thuringi, A.D.483. “It is certain that the Roman empire was divided into ten kingdoms; and though they might be sometimes more and sometimes fewer, yet they were still known by the name of the ten kingdoms of the western empire.” - Scott. KPC 14.2

This beast in the lapse of time assumes a new phase. “I considered the horns,” says Daniel, and behold there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots. In this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things.” Verse 8. KPC 15.1

This little horn is by all Protestants acknowledged to be a symbol of the Papacy. It was prophesied of this horn that he should subdue three kings. Verse 24. The three kingdoms that were plucked up to make way for the Papacy, were, 1. The Heruli, in 493. 2. The Vandals, in 534, and, 3. The Ostrogoths in 538. (Gibbon’s Decline and Fall.) Into the hands of this power the saints, times, and laws, were to be given for a time, times, and the dividing of time. Verse 25. [1260 years; see Revelation 12:6, 14.] The Papacy was established in A.D.538; for although the decree constituting the bishop of Rome the head of all the churches, was issued by Justinian, emperor of the East, five years previous, in A.D.533, yet that decree would forever have remained ineffectual, could not the three powers that stood in the way of the Papacy have been dislodged, and he really established in his position. Hence we must date the reign of the Papacy from the year (538) when Justinian’s decree was carried into execution, and the saints, time, and laws, in reality given into the hands of the little horn. From 538, when the Papacy was set up, 1260 years extend to 1798; and it is a notable fact of history, that on the 10th of February, 1798, Berthier, a general of Buonaparte’s, at the head of the Republican army of France, entered Rome and took it. The Papal government was abolished, and the Pope died in exile in 1799. (See Croley on the Apocalypse, Their’s History of the Revolution, and Clarke on Daniel 7:25.) The Papacy has never been restored to its former power. We are by this chain of prophecy brought down to within 66 years of the present time. The prophet does not see this beast gradually changing his wild and ferocious nature to the innocence and gentleness of the lamb, to make way for a temporal millennium; but he looks only a step further and says, “I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame.” Daniel 7:11. -Key to Prophetic Chart, by Uriah Smith (for information click here)



Let us investigate the character of the little horn item by item as what the text enumerated so we could see the reason why it is fulfilled unmistakably to the papacy:

1. Speak great words against the highest-

    • One of the doctrines of the Catholic Church is, "transubstantiation." It means, literally, a crossing from one substance to another..." (The Faith Explained, p.358). Which is turning the bread and wine into God Jesus Christ literally. According to Fr. Bernard Mulcahy, O.P., in his pamphlet entitled, The Holy Eucharist, p.12, it says, "...the Eucharist is the true Body and Blood of Jesus Christ--the reality and not a mere symbol or figure." "...Jesus is... present as a human being and as God?" (Our Joy in Being Catholic, p.99). Another pamphlet entitled The Eucharist, p.17, by Peter Kreeft also says, "The Eucharistic presence of Christ...remain for about 15 minutes in the human body after being swallowed..." Those are blasphemous words against the doctrine of the Most High God.

    • Another doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church is the Primacy of the pope, which is not Biblical. If Jesus has delegated one man to be the head of the church, then we will not find His disciples fighting for it (Matthew 20:20-24) because they will surely respect the one that Christ appointed.

"all ye are brethren" (Matt. 23:8), Christ said, but the statement below is opposite:

"Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff." -- Bull of Pope Boniface VIII promulgated November 18, 1302 (click here for the full copy of the letter)

    • Also the absolution of sin assumed by the priesthood. "Every priest has the power to forgive sins". (The Faith Explained, p.435.). This doctrine is in contrast with what Jesus Christ teaches in the Bible;

And when he saw their faith, he said unto him, Man, thy sins are forgiven thee. And the scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, Who is this which speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone? But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power upon earth to forgive sins,.." Luke 5:20,21,24   

2. Wear out the saints of the highest- The persecution headed by the Roman Catholic Church, direct or indirect, was already admitted by the number of books published by this church. The following are excerpts from several books gathered referring to the church's persecution:

  • ",..when it became all-powerful as a result of the patronage of Constantine and his successors, turned intolerant and become a persecuting power. It persecuted pagans, treated schism and heresy as equivalent to crime, and made them offenses punishable by the state. Scarcely liberated from oppression, the church underwent an even more telling test: that of the protection of the state, and in its turn became the oppressor." -Dictionary of Fundamental Theology, p.262

  • "Jan Hus (1369-1415) is a big name among the Czechs, the medieval preacher being lionized as the real father of the Czech nation. The fact that Hus was burned at the stake by the Catholic hierarchy in 1415 explains why there remained certain locals (Czech) who still hated the Church" -The Church Can Handle the Truth, p.89.

  • "FACTS: From 1540 to 1700 in Spain, experts counted 44,674 trials all in all. The number of the accused sent to burn at the stake is 1.8 per cent, which means that over a period of 160 years, the evidence suggests that the Spanish Inquisition, reputedly the bloodiest of all, killed something like 800 people." -The Church Can Handle the Truth, p. 94.

  • " It was under Paul IV the Inquisition came to power." -A Compact History of the Popes, p.143

3. think to change times and laws- The issue of changing times and laws does not need so much argument for the Catholic Church herself admitted the fact.

"The pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain, or interpret even divine laws... The pope can modify divine law, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts as a vicegerent of God upon the earth." Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Bibliotica, "Papa" art. 2, translated.

  • In book, Definitive Edition Cathecism of the Catholic Church, p.552-554, the changes goes like these:

  • I am the Lord your God: You shall not have strange Gods before me.

  • You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.

  • Remember to keep holy the Lord’s Day.

  • Honor your father and mother.

  • You shall not kill.

  • You shall not commit adultery.

  • You shall not steal.

  • You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

  • You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife.

  • You shall not covet your neighbor’s goods.

Their list of the Ten Commandments is so different compared with what is enumerated in the Bible:

  • 1. Exo 20:3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.

  • 2. Exo 20:4-6 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

  • 3. Exo 20:7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

  • 4. Exo 20:8-11 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

  • 5. Exo 20:12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.

  • 6. Exo 20:13 Thou shalt not kill.

  • 7. Exo 20:14 Thou shalt not commit adultery.

  • 8. Exo 20:15 Thou shalt not steal.

  • 9. Exo 20:16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

  • 10. Exo 20:17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

  • "Nothing is said in the Bible about the change of the Lord's day from Saturday to Sunday. We know of the change only from the tradition of the Church--a fact handed down to us from earliest times by the living voice of the Church. That is why we find so illogical the attitude of many non-Catholics, who say that they will believe nothing unless they can find it in the Bible and yet will continue to keep Sunday as the Lord's day on the say-so of the Catholic Church." -The Faith Explained, p. 246

  • ""You may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify." --James Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of Our Fathers (1917 ed.), pp. 72, 73.

3. they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time. --In Daniel chapter 4:23, the word "time" denotes one year, two times could be signified by the plural, two years, and the dividing of time or half a time is half a year. According to Cardinal H. Manning, "...for twelve hundred years the Bishops of Rome have reigned as temporal princes." Historically, the pope of Rome was taken captive by Gen. Bertier in 1798. Going back from A.D. 538 (the year when Belisirus drove out the Visigoths from Rome) to 1798, it will take 1,260 years, the space of time the Cardinal estimated. For more information, please click here.



"The little horn comes forth from one of the horns of the goat. How, it may be asked, can this be true of Rome? It is unnecessary to remind the reader that earthly governments are not introduced into prophecy till they become in some way connected with the people of God. Rome became connected with the Jews, the people of God at that time, by the famous Jewish League, B.C.161. 1Maccabees8; Josephus’s Antiquities, book 12, chap.10, sec.6; Prideaux, Vol.II, p.166. But seven years before this, that is, in B.C.168, Rome had conquered Macedonia, and made that country a part of its empire. Rome is therefore introduced into prophecy just as, from the conquered Macedonian horn of the goat, it is going forth to new conquests in other directions. It therefore appeared to the prophet, or may be properly spoken of in this prophecy, as coming forth from one of the horns of the goat." Thoughts on Daniel and Revelation, p.175



6. The little horn waxed great even to the host of heaven. Rome did this also. The host of heaven, when used in a symbolic sense in reference to events transpiring upon the earth, must denote persons of illustrious character or exalted position. The great red dragon (Revelation 12:4) is said to have cast down a third part of the stars of heaven to the ground. The dragon is there interpreted to symbolize pagan Rome, and the stars it cast to the ground were Jewish rulers. Evidently it is the same power and the same work that is here brought to view, which again makes it necessary to apply this growing horn to Rome.

7. The little horn magnified himself even to the Prince of the host. Rome alone did this. In the interpretation (verse 25) this is called standing up against the Prince of princes. How clear an allusion to the crucifixion of our Lord under the jurisdiction of the Romans.

8. By the little horn the daily sacrifice was taken away. This little horn must be understood to symbolize Rome in its entire history including its two phases, pagan and papal. These two phases are elsewhere spoken of as the “daily” (sacrifice is a supplied word) and the “transgression of desolation;” the daily (desolation) signifying the pagan form, and the transgression of desolation, the papal. (See on verse 13.) In the actions ascribed to this power, sometimes one form is spoken of, sometimes the other. “By him” (the papal form) “the daily” (the pagan form) “was taken away.” Pagan Rome was remodeled into papal Rome. And the place of his sanctuary, or worship, the city of Rome, was cast down. The seat of government was removed by Constantine in A.D.330 to Constantinople. This same transaction is brought to view in Revelation 13:2, where it is said that the dragon, pagan Rome, gave to the beast, papal Rome, his seat, the city of Rome. DAR1909 176.6

9. A host was given him (the little horn) against the daily. The barbarians that subverted the Roman empire in the changes, attritions, and transformations of those times, became converts to the Catholic faith, and the instruments of the dethronement of their former religion. Though conquering Rome politically, they were themselves vanquished religiously by the theology of Rome, and became the perpetrators of the same empire in another phase. And this was brought about by reason of “transgression;” that is, by the working of the mystery of iniquity. The papacy is the most cunningly contrived, false ecclesiastical system ever devised; and it may be called a system of iniquity because it has committed its abominations and practiced its orgies of superstition in the garb, and under the pretense, of pure and undefiled religion.

10. The little horn cast the truth to the ground, and practiced and prospered. This describes, in few words, the work and career of the papacy. The truth is by it hideously caricatured; it is loaded with traditions; it is turned into mummery and superstition; it is cast down and obscured.

And this antichristian power has “practiced,” - practiced its deceptions upon the people, practiced its schemes of cunning to carry out its own ends and aggrandize its own power.

And it has “prospered.” It has made war with the saints, and prevailed against them. It has run its alloted career, and is soon to be broken without hand, to be given to the burning flame, and to perish in the consuming glories of the second appearing of our Lord.

Rome meets all the specifications of the prophecy. No other power does meet them. Hence Rome, and no other, is the power in question. And while the descriptions given in the word of God of the character of this monstrous system are fully met, the prophecies of its baleful history have been most strikingly and accurately fulfilled. --Thoughts on Daniel and Revelation, pp. 176, 177 (1909)


Note #8

Note: Rome has two phases, pagan and papal phase. The first direction of its wars were made against the earthly kingdoms then came the changed and pointed its war against the people of God. With its inherited power from the empire it continued the monstrous war of his predecessor against the people of God. represented by the host and stars, up to the time of the Protestant Reformers. Thus the expression, "cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them." This little horn in its papal phase shows to be the same little horn in chapter 7:25, "...shall wear out the saints of the highest", which describes the same character. Those two verses refer to none other but Rome. Record shows that great personages protected or bequeathed powers to the papacy that contributed to its unequal power:

"In the early fourth century, the Roman Emperor Constantine favored Christianity and protected it from persecution. He endowed the church with money, perhaps with the land in central Italy that would become the papal state, and certainly with buildings in the city of Rome." (101 Q&A on Popes and Papacy, p.16)

"When the Roman Empire collapsed, the bishop of Rome was in the position to take charge because Christianity was now protected and playing a leading role in religious and political matters." (ibid, p.17)

".., when Rome fell, church and state were merged into one-- just as paganism and Roman Empire had naturally gone together." (ibid, p.23)

"For several decades, Pepin and his descendants protected Zacharias and his successors by driving out invaders and then "giving" central Italy to the popes in a Donation of Pepin that mirrored the Donation of Constantine." (ibid, 24)

"In 534 Belisarius completely overthrew the Vandal kingdom, and the Vandals as a separate people disappeared from history. Twenty years later the armies of Justinian* wrested Italy from the Ostrogoths, and they too are heard of no more as a separate people." (Modern Times and the Living Past, p.217)

*It was Justinian the Great who called for the Council Constantinople II in 553 (A Guide to Church History, p.28)